The DNA of Western European Nations
We are often asked about the claim that DNA supposedly disproves any connection between European peoples and ancient Israel. A recent scholarly study by Cambridge University in Great Britain, quoted and documented below, proves that such an Israel-European connection does indeed exist. It is important to notice that the DNA of modern Jews significantly differs between Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jewish types and also differs significantly with that of ancient Israel. It must be pointed out that multiple studies show a connection between modern Jewish DNA and that of the Turks; this DNA is Altaic, not Semitic. The Turkish element entered Jewish DNA through conversions in the ninth and tenth centuries, A.D. The Turkish tribes originated in the Altaic Mountain region of easteran Asia, and their eponymous ancestor is Olguz, not Abraham. There is much more to the DNA question concerning origins than our critics will acknowledge, and much disinformation. The facts documented below and on the attached pdf files will clarify this issue tremendously for our readers.
Question: I would like to know your response to those pushing the DNA aspect in refuting British Israelism? -Henry D.
Answer: We need to recognize, first of all, that the two houses of Israel themselves had a differing DNA profile. We read in Genesis 38:1-2, "And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah. And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her." The House of Judah had a well-documented Canaanite infusion, making it necessary for Christ's genealogy to be given in both of the Gospels of Mathew and Luke to verify his Hebrew ancestry. The House of Israel, in contrast to Judah, had an Aramaic language and heritage. In the Book of Genesis, at the requirement of their parents, the patriarchs Isaac and Jacob took wives of their own ethnic heritage from the region of Padan Aram ("the field of Aram"). (see Gen. 24:1-10; 27:46-28:1-2) Aram is the root of the word, Armenia, and is located on the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains gateway to Europe. For this reason, although both Israel and Judah were Semitic, there would have been a different element in each national heritage. Therefore, Europeans descended from the House of Israel would be expected to have a DNA that varied from the House of Judah.
More importantly, people usually assume that the ancient Hebrews had a dark or Oriental look, but that is not correct. In the Bible we find that they had what are today called European features. We read a description of King David in 1 Samuel 16:12, "Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to." (KJV) The popular Amplified version translates this, "David had a healthy reddish complexion and beautiful eyes, and was fine-looking." The Bible in Basic English is even more clear: "Now he had red hair and beautiful eyes and pleasing looks." The term "beautiful countenance" (KJV) is a translation of the Hebrew, "yapheh ayin," meaning "fair; by analogy, reminiscent of a fountain." The clear implication here is of blue eyes like the color of the sea or a water fountain, which is often found in light-skinned and red-haired people in northwestern Europe.
For centuries the world has been explored in quest of the lost tribes of Israel without any real success, and why? Because men have been looking all along for a people like the Jews--a people with "Jewish" physiogomy, and practicing Mosaic rites, both of which guides are worse than worthless. There is not the remotest evidence that the Isrelites ever possessed whiat is called the "Jewish" countenance, or that the Jews themselves possessed it in ancient times. On the contrary, the sons of Jacob did not recognise their brother Joseph when they went down to Egypt, or think him other than an Egyptian, a mistake that could not have been made had he borne the conventional Jewish features. Moses, too, was taken for an Egyptian (Exodus 2:19); and so was St. Paul, sixteen centuries later (Acts 21:38). Although Persia swarmed with Jews in the days of the famous king Ahasuerus/Xerxes, Esther's orign was quite unknown until she divulged it; for she "had not yet shewed her kindred nor her people, as Mordecai had charged her that she should not shew it" (2:10); from which language we can form our own conclusions. The nationality of Mordecai himself was common knowledge, but the reason is given: "For he had told them that he was a Jew" (3:4). There was apparently nothing in the Jewish face at that date to distinguish them from their neighbors, and some change must have come over the Jews since.then. We get an inkling of the change in Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians," where he says:
"The Jews of the East to this day often have red hair and blue eyes, with a nose of delicate form, and nearly straight, and are quite unlike their brethren of Europe. It is the Syrians who have the large nose. This prominent feature was always a characteristic of the Syrians, but not of the ancient, nor of the modern, Jews of Judea." (Vol. 2:198).
Professor Wilkinson states that this particular trait, the so-called "Jewish countenance," is considered an invariable proof of "mixture;" and we know there was an intense mixture in B.C. 125 onwards, when the Maccabees conquered the Idumeans and incorporated them in the Jewish State. This, of course, only affected the Palestinian Jews, who were but a small section of the Jewish race; and it is significant that the supposed "Jewish physiognomy" is today confined to 14 percent of the Hebrew population. (See Dr. Maurice Fishberg's "The Jews: A Study of Race and Environment," for an exhaustive analysis and scores of illustrations.) We thus see how useless it was to seek for the missing Israelites by means of this "Jewish type"--a type which is not typical even among the Jews, and from which the Ten Tribes were entirely free.
This is verified in a recent study by Cambridge University, and published in the year 2000 in the book, "Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population Prehistory of Europe." This scientific study confirms an early "diffusion spanning the entire European continent from the Levant" or Mideast. Concerning DNA, we read of "haplogroup H, the most frequent in Europe and one that is also common in the Near East." In fact, the study further states that haplogroup H is a primary "signature…type of the ancient Hebrew population…" It should therefore be no surprise that "Middle Eastern populations generally connect much closer to typical northwestern European [DNA] samples such as the Irish and Danes." (pp. 109, 165, 175ff)
An informative two page illustrated chart collated from leading scholars that compares the ethnic features of ancient Israelites with modern northwest European peoples is available from CBIA for a donation to cover our costs.
Pictures From Egyptian monuments belonging to the period covered by the film, The Ten Commandments
Faces From the Past
Popular ideas about race mixtures in Britain need correction.
So do those about the ancient Israelites.
by Ben Allen
“From the physical point of view, the Celt and Saxon are one; whatever be the source of their mutual antagonism, it does not lie in a difference of race. It is often said that we British are a mixed and mongrel collection of types and breeds; the truth is, that as regards physical type, the inhabitants of the British Isles are the most uniform of all the large nationalities of Europe.” –Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. (pp. 22-26, Nationality and Race) Neither is there a difference of race between the ancient Palestinians and ourselves.
Modern Palestinians Who Look British
Following his subsequent observations in the East, Sir Arthur Keith says that “the Semitic type in Asia is Caucasian or Europeanoid.” If Palestinians were put in a uniform and lined up “in a British Regiment,” he declares, “fifty per cent of them would be inseparable” from British soldiers “owing to the ruddiness of their colouring and the European aspect of their features.” (pp.10-11, The Palestinian Fund Quarterly, Jan. 1940.)
A typical Press report states: “Palestinian Jews do not look Jewish. Everywhere one sees fair hair, blue eyes and freckles, it seems that the Jewish characteristics so familiar to Europeans disappear in the Orient” (Manchester Evening Chronicle, May 22, 1936.)
The physical characteristics which we Europeans regard as typically Jewish were fefatures mainly derived from admixture with the considerable Khazar-Tartar, Armenian, Hittite and North African communities which adopted the Jewish Faith and amalgamated with the Jews during both dispersions. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1943, article on “Types,” there is no such thing as a Jewish race left.
While the majority of European Jews are broad headed, it is a matter of archaeological fact that the parental stock in Palestine was long-headed, and the contemporary Egyp0tian reliefs and paintings represented the Palestinians of the Hebrew Period as such, and with thin regular features and frequently with blue eyes and either light or dark hair (See Professor Z. Ripley, p.390, Races of Europe, ppp.99-100, The Races of Man, 1924).
This type is surprisingly common among Jews in the East, and so, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia (vol.12, pp.292-294, 1906), cannot be attributed to intermarriage with fair Europeans. There can be no doubt, on the monumental evidence alone, that the type must have figured prominently in the ancient Hebrew kingdoms, according to Dr. A.C. Haddon, F.R.S., a Reader in Ethnology, Cambridge University.
“The fair hair and fair skin so frequently seen amongst Jews have been imputed to Nordic intermixture, but this would seem to be an unnecessary deduction.” He adds, “It is interesting to note that, amongst the Samaritans of today, red hair, fair complexion and blue eyes are extremely common, although tthere is no reqson to believe that there has been at any time any massive inclusion of Nordic blood into this jealously isolatetd group of people. On the other hand, they are more likely to represent the original population of the kingdom of Northern Israel.” (pp.99-100, The Races of Man, 1924)
It is, however, important to remember that the people of Northern Israel were not Jews. Indeed they never formed part of Jewry, and certainly did not look like most modern Jews. They never followed Judaism, but early became pagan and were later classed as Gentiles (Hosea 1:9; Romans 9:24ff.)
“The term Jew, originally Jehudi, in spite of its wider application, means properly ‘man of Judah’.” The distinction “can best be expressed in the phrase which may sound paradoxical but aptly characterizes the true relationship of the two peoples, “the Israelites were not Jews” (S.A. Cook and H. Hall, Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edn., vol. 15, p. 373; and The Hebrew Peoples, pp. 1781-2, 1784-5; vol. 3, Harmsworth’s History, and see any responsible commentary.)
Origin of Jewish Types in Europe
Popular ideas of a so-called Jewish race type would ot long survive knowledge of the facts. We quote from Harvard’s Professor of Anthropology, Roland Dixon: “The most important single factor…was the conversion to Judaism, in the eighth century, of [Turkish tribe] the Khazars. Great numbers of Jews are known to have settled among the Khazars, and their conversion to Judaism followed. In the tenth century, however, the Khazars were crushed by the rising power of the Slavs and scattered far and wide. In these widely dispersed, strongly commercial people converted to the Jewish faith, and in the great numbers of Jews from the Caucasus and the northern borders of Asia-Minor, who had there been brachycephalized [become broad-headed] through centuries of contact with the surrounding population, we may in all probability see the origin of the great mass of the eastern European Jews of Today.” (Roland Dixon, The Racial History of Man, 1923, p.174)
Ancient Palestinians with sandy hair and hazel eyes (left) and blue eyes (right), from Pharaoh Merneptah’s scene of the “Four Races” (1225-1215 B.C.). Merneptah recorded an invasion of the “land of Israel.” See Rosellini, Monumental Story plate 157, and Lepsius, Erganzangsbund, plate 48b. Palestinians and their neighbors are frequently shown thus with blue eyes, and with red, brown or black hair.
Cecil B. de Mille’s film, The Ten Commandments, the Israelite epic, claims that its documentation is minutely accurate. This illustration deduces evidence supporting the casting of fair types to represent the ancient Israelites. Mr. Noerdlinger, Research Expert for the film, The Ten Commandments, stated: “There was no so-called Jewish look in those days. The Jewish look only gradually developed and came from a purely non-Semitic people, the Hittites, who lived in what is today Turkey.” (London Daily Mail, Nov. 8, 1954)
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